Smalley on key missionaries in Thailand. Oxford: Blackwell, Contains Scott W. Sunquist, "Bradley, Dan Beach. Brackney, William H. Historical Dictionary of the Baptists. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, Anderson, New Haven: Yale University, Contains "Thailand," Available online at herbswanson.
London: Lutterworth Press, Contains Ray C. Downs, "Thailand. New York: Harper, [with many later editions].
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Contains numerous entries on Christianity in Thailand. The edition is available online at Google Books beginning with Vol. I here. New York: Charles Scribner, Contains, "Siam," Available online at Google Books here. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, Contains Thomas H. Spence, Jr. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, Contains Seree Lorgunpai, "Thai Theology.
Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 5 , edited by Erwin Fahlbusch. Translated by Geoffrey William Bromiley. Contains Herbert R. Swanson, "Thailand. Encyclopedia of Missions , edited by Edwin Munsell Bliss. Contains several entries on missions in Siam. First edition available online at Making of America here. Encyclopedia of Southern Baptists.
Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman Press, Evangelical Dictionary of World Missions , edited by A. Scott Moreau. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books, Contains Thomas N. Wisely, "Thailand. Hughes, Philip J. New York: International Missionary Council, Contains John L. Eakin, "Siam" and W. Law, Gail. Chinese Churches Handbook. Dyck and Dennis D. Scottsdale, Pennsylvania: Herald Press, Available online at the Internet Library here. New Catholic Encyclopedia , 2d ed.
Detroit, Michigan: Gale, Contains S. Chumsriphan, "Thailand, the Catholic Church in" and K. Exeter, England: The Paternoster Press, Contains Harold R. Cook, "Thailand. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, Contains D. Bundy and D. Dayton, "Thailand. Ayutthaya: Ayutthaya Historical Study Centre, New York: Funk and Wagnalls, Includes, "Siam and Laos," volume 10, Shavit, David.
Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Smith, Harold Eugene, Gayla S. Nieminen, and May Kyi Win. Historical Dictionary of Thailand. Contains brief articles on "Christianity," "Catholicism," "Protestantism," and "Education". Contains several entries for American missionaries in Siam. Vinton, John A. Vinton Book: Vol. Boston: The Congregational Library, [n. World Christian Encyclopedia. New York: Oxford University Press, Contains David Barrett, "Thailand.
Edited by George T. Kurian and Todd M. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Contains, volume 1, "Thailand. Adventist Review Available online here. Chiang Mai Searchlight, Chinese Repository [index of articles on Siam available online here ] Most volumes available online at Harvard Library here. Laos News. Continued as North Siam News. Ministry: International Journal for Pastors Available online here. Missionary Review of the World Available online here. General References. Abba Bhamorabutr. Bangkok: Department of Corrections Press, Abeel, David.
Journal of a Residence in China and the Neighboring Countries from to New York: Leavitt, Lord and Company, Journal of a Residence in China, and the Neighboring Countries from to London: James Nisbet, Journal of a Residence in China, and the Neighboring Countries. New York: J. Abeel Williamson, Ahonen, Lauri K. Aitken, Judy. Dybdahl, Alberts, Tara. Conflict and Conversion: Catholicism in Southeast Asia, American Bible Society. American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.
Siam Mission and Messrs, Bradley and Caswell. Andaya, Barbara Watson. Available online at Southeast Asian Studies at Freiburg here. Anderson, John. English Intercourse with Siam in the Seventeenth Century. London: K. Available online at Internet Archive here. Annan, Kent. Anuparp Wichitnantana. Abstract available online at ProQuest here. Armour-Hileman, Victoria. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, Arrupe, Pedro. Ashcraft, Nancy. At the Scent of Water. Available online at Scribd. Assumption University.
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Backus, Mary, ed. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, Bagster, Samuel. London: Samuel Bagster and Sons, . Bailey, Stephen K. Bangkok Adventist Hospital. Spray of Golden Showers. Bangkok: Thailand Publishing House, Banpote Wechkama. Available online at Thai Missions Library here. Bantoon Boon-Itt. John's College Nottingham, Barrett, Greg.
San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass, Barrett, John. New York: American Tract Society, Barry, Coeli. Batchelor, Randal Shon. Available online at Montana State University Libraries here. Batchelor, Simon. Available online at Gamos, Ltd. Bateup, Valerie. Summary available online at University of Hong Kong Libraries here.
Batson, Benjamin. Available online at Siam Society here. Bauer, Marie. Baw Tananone. Beard, Augustus Field. Boston: Pilgrim Press, Available online at the Internet Archive here. Bebbington, David. Beebe, Lyle Jerome. Open Doors in Laos. New York: Willett Press, Bell, Sister Francis Xavier. Bangkok: Catholic Research Centre of Thailand, Benedetto Philachan Kornkrai. Vatican City: Urbaniana University Press, Benedict XVI.
Benjaporn Mochai. Bennett, Averil. Bangkok: Kanok Bannasan, Beugler, Dorothy. Central Thailand: Heart of the Orchid. London: China Inland Mission, Blanford, Carl E. Chinese Churches in Thailand. Bangkok: Suriyaban, n. For some individual volumes, see the Addendum to this bibliography here. Letters From Siam. Seventy-fifth Anniversary Series: Siam and Laos.
New York: Board of Foreign Missions, Siam Mission: Centennial Series. Siam: the Need, the Opportunity. Things Siamese. Bobilin, Robert.
Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, Bock, Carl. Bangkok: White Orchid Press, Bock, Valerie. Hope for the Rejected. Chiangmai: McKean Rehabilitation Institute, . London: The Leprosy Mission International, n. The Umbrella Girl. A Painting Story Book from Thailand.
Presbyterian World Mission
London: Leprosy Mission, ca. Boese, Joy. Adventures in Learning to Trust God. West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: Infinity Publishing. Boonratna Boayen. Boonsri Glinhawm. Bowring, John. The Kingdom and People of Siam. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, See esp. I, here. Boyd, Carolyn. The Apostle of Hope: The Dr.
Kriengsak Story. Chichester: Sovereign World, Bradley, Dan Beach. Abstract of the Journal of Rev. Dan Beach Bradley, M. Medical Missionary in Siam Edited by George Haws Feltus. Bradley, , Published as: Abstract of the Journal of Rev. Cleveland: Pilgrim Church, Bradley and Caswell from the Service of the A. Oberlin, Ohio: J. Fitch, Chicago: The Ram's Horn Company, Bradley, David and Maya Bradley. Bradley, William L. Available online at the Siam Society here. Pasadena: William Carey Library, Bangkok: Siam Society, Bradt, Charles Edwin, et.
Wichita, Kansas: Missionary Press, Breazeale, Kennon. Renard, Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa, Bressan, Luigi. Bangkok: Catholic Mission of Bangkok, Bangkok: Assumption University Press, Bressan, Luigi, and Michael Smithies. Briggs, L. Briggs, W. Brown, Arthur J. The Expectation of Siam. New York: Revell, Eugene P. Dunlap, D. Amazon Digital Services, n. Rising Churches in Non-Christian Lands. Brown, Russell E. Doing the Gospel in Southeast Asia.
Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: Judson Press, Brown, Susan. Bruce, Robert. Buddhadassa Indappano, Bhikku. Christianity and Buddhism. The Sinclair Thompson Memorial Lecture . Translated by the Venerable Punno, et. Sublime Life Mission, n. Buehrer, Judi. Buell, William P. An Alphabet of the Siamese Language. Unpublished manuscript, n. Butt, John W. Available online at Informal Northern Thai Group here. Bushell, Ian. Caleb Project. Reaching the Peoples of Bangkok. Littleton, Colorado: Caleb Project, Canfield, Carolyn L.
Cassaniti, Julia. Caswell, Jesse. Typescript, Troy, NY, Catholic Bishop's Conference of Thailand. Available online at East Asian Pastoral Institute here. Cauthen, Baker J. Nashville: Broadman, Cerutti, Pietro. Available online at Jesuits Thailand here. And Sit In the Kingdom of God.
Chaiwat Chawmuangman. Chaiyun Ukosakul. Chambers, Paul W. Chang, David Dao-Ming. Chansamone Saiyasak. Available online at Academia. Available online at Academica. Charles, Joseph Paul. Available online at South African Theological Seminary here. Charters, Rosemary. Chayan Hiranpan. David, Bombay: Himalaya Publishing House, Chinda Singhanet. Cort of Chieng Mai. Bangkok: Church of Christ in Thailand, Christ Church, Bangkok.
Bangkok: Christ Church, Father Forgive Them. New York: The Alliance, Christian Conference Committee of South Siam. Chuleepran Srisoontorn Persons. Chumpol Maniratanvongsiri. Chung, Chana Seung Hoi. Church of Christ in Thailand. Constitution, Parliamentary Procedures, Discipline and Government. Translated by Francis M. Bangkok: Kramol Tiranasar, Thirty-three Points: Buddhist and Christian Teachings. Church, Pharcellus. Boston: Heath, Available online at the Internet Archives here. Cioccolanti, Steve. Oxford, England: Monarch Books, Clark, David J. Brno: Czech Society for the Study of Religions, Clark, David William.
Clark, Mary. Stories From Pagoda Land. Leeds, U. Codman-Wilson, Mary Louise.
McGilvary, Daniel [WorldCat Identities]
Coertzen, P. Coetzee, E. Shipton, and R. Takeuchi, eds. Singapore: Trafford Publishing, Cohen, Erik. Published in Social Compass 38, 2 : Available online at the Thai Missions Library here. Cole, Julia A. The Call to Siam and Laos. Conklin, James E. Hedlund, Bombay: Gospel Literature Press, Cooke, Joseph. Published in Lingo 18 January : Cooke, Mary. Overseas Missionary Fellowship, n. Cooper, A. Historical Sketch of the Missions in Siam. Philadelphia: Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, Chiang Mai: Payap College, Cort, Mary Lovina. Siam or The Heart of Further India.
New York: Anson D.
- Amid a Warring World: American Foreign Relations, 1775–1815 (Issues in the History of American Foreign Relations).
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Cowan, William L. Cox, Christopher. Available online at christopherrcox. Craft, Carolyn. Crane, Allan. Fierce the Conflict: the Story of Lilian Hamer. Cressy, Earl H. City Churches in East Asia. New York: Missionary Research Library, Hong Kong: Earl Herbert Cressy, Crooks, Florence. Tales of Thailand. Norwood, Massachusetts: Privately printed, Charles H. Crooks, Medical Missionary to Siam, Crow, Gerald. Cullen, Joy Souther. Cummings, Marjorie J. Sunrise Furlough.
Philadelphia: Dorrance, Curtis, Lillian Johnson. The Laos of North Siam. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, Available online at Project Gutenberg here. Bangkok: White Lotus Press, Cushing, J. Serialized in 17 issues, ending with 66 May : Available online at Google Books beginning here. Dadee-en Daniel Saengwichai. Dahlfred, Karl.
Available online at 2sowers. Amazon Digital Services, Damrong Rajanubhab, Prince. Prince Damrong Rajanubhab a. Damrongthai Up-ngern. Danpongpee, Esther. Available at herbswanson. Davis, John R. Published as Poles Apart? Contextualizing the Gospel. Bangalore: Theological Book Trust, Manuscript copy, n. Deininger, Friedrich W. DeNeui, Gretchen.
Available online at the Covenant Ministries in Thailand here. DeNeui, Paul. Published as: "Contextualizing with Thai Folk Buddhists. Pasadena, California: William Carey Library, Available online at The Covenant Ministries in Thailand here. Kraft, Dettmore, Kim Marie. Dhani Nivat, H.
Dickerson, Doris H. Dickerson, Thomas B. Dierck, Lorraine. Dinkins, Larry. Singapore: OMF, Available online at International Journal of Frontiers here. Dobson, Kenneth C. Typescript, Alton, Illinois, Dodd, Edward M. McKean, M. Erdman, New York: Association Press, Dodd, W. The Tai Race. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Torch Press, Doss, Ted. Doty, Stephen Howard. Downman, Scott Andrew. Available online at Griffith University here. Downs, Ray C. Anderson, New York: Friendship Press, Dripps, J. Microfiche copy: fiche Revised by A. Willard Cooper.
Available online at Goggle Books here. Dusadee Angsumethangkur. Available online at Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture here. Dusanee Boonyasangawong. Thesis, Mahidol University, Dwight, Henry Otis.
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New York: Macmillan Company, Dybdahl, Jon. Missions: A Two-Way Street. Boise, Idaho: Pacific Press, Eakin, John A. Boon-It in Siam. Eakin, John L. Eakin, Mary A. The Eakin Family in Thailand. Bangkok: Prachandra Press, Eakin, Paul A. Buddhism and the Christian Approach to Buddhists in Thailand. Bangkok: R. Hongladaromp, Also published under the same title by Bangkok: Rung Ruang Ratana, Easterling, John F. Available online at Global Mission here. Easum, Taylor M.
Ehlers, Jeff. Available online at Lutheran Society for Missiology here. Elder, Gove. Taichung, Taiwan: Asia Theological Association, Elder, Newton Carl. Available online at OhioLink here. England, Edward. Ens, Marie. Camp Hill, Pennsylvania: Christian Publications, Eubank, L. If You Are Really God Ask and Receive. Chiang Mai: Acts Co. Fahrni, Audrey M. No Turning Back. London: OMF Books, Siam General and Medical Features. Bangkok: Bangkok Times Press, Faris, John T. Faris, Famham, J, M. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press, Farrington, Anthony, ed.
Feltus, George Haws. Abstract of Misionary Journals of Rev. Typescript carbon copy. Troy, New York, n. Finding aid available online at Pitts Theology Library here. Stephen Mattoon Missionary Journals of Rev. Jesse Caswell and of the Rev. Asa Hemenway of Siam. Samuel Reynolds House of Siam. Bangkok: White Lotus, Available online at Hathi Trust Digital Library here. Feudge, Fanny Roper. Eastern Side: or Mission Life in Siam. Philadelphia: Bible and Publication Society, Fiers, A. Louis: Bethany Press, Filbeck, David. To Preach Where Christ was not Known.
Available online at UBS Translations here. Flanders, Christopher L. Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications, Fleeson, Katherine Neville. Laos Folk-lore of Farther India. New York: Fleming H. Revell, Available online at Open Library here. Fleming, Kenneth. Buddhist-Christian Encounter in Contemporary Thailand. Ford, Norman. Fordham, Graham S. Forest, Alain. Fowke, W. Available online at Trinity Theological Seminary here. Oxford: Church Army Press and Supplies, Fowler, Dorothy. Franklin, Stephen T. Freeman, John H. An Oriental Land of the Free.
Philadelphia: Westminster, Fridell, Elmer A. However, a previous study in urban Chiang Mai found similar results on the effect of religion on patterns of sexual risk behaviors. Many other studies in other settings have also demonstrated the effectiveness of faith-based HIV prevention interventions [ 27 — 29 ]. More research is needed to explore the effects, and to explore the pathways through which religion influence sexual morality of adolescents in rural northern Thailand.
It is important to signal that although patterns of sexual risk behaviors were much more prevalent among lowland adolescent Thai than among their counterparts from ethnic minorities, both groups of adolescents remain largely vulnerable to HIV infection and other STIs. For instance, among the sexually active adolescents attending high school in rural Chiang Mai, a significantly low proportion The same pattern of behaviors was also noted in our recent study among young people attending non-formal education centers in urban Chiang Mai [ 11 ]; underscoring the particular vulnerability of young Thai to HIV and other STIs.
Although many HIV prevention and reproductive health initiatives and campaigns have been conducted in Chiang Mai [ 30 ], consistent use of condoms among adolescents continues to be unacceptably low [ 4 ]. There is need for continued research to understand the dynamics of sexual behavior patterns, in order to inform the design and implementation of interventions that are tailored to the needs of adolescents, and address correlates of their risky sexual behaviors. The finding that very few adolescent males in our study had their first sexual experience with commercial sex workers, as was common in past years, has been observed in a number of studies.
The fear of contracting HIV infection through commercial sex workers whose links with HIV infection were frequently reported during the early HIV prevention campaigns has led young males to rely on their girlfriends for sexual needs [ 7 , 31 — 33 ]. The association of alcohol use with sexual risk behaviors is well documented in the literature [ 34 — 38 ]. As previously reported in a study in Thailand, alcohol consumption is perceived by youth as allowing people to more easily break social and traditional norms which served as a brake to engaging in risky sexual behaviors [ 36 ].
Another study of vocational students in northern Thailand showed that at any given age, sexual initiation was associated with alcohol consumption [ 35 ]. In the study results, in addition to alcohol, tobacco smoking was associated with having sexual intercourse among both lowland adolescent Thai and adolescents from ethnic minorities. It is therefore crucial for interventions promoting safe sexual behaviors among adolescents in rural Chiang Mai, and in Thailand in general, to incorporate information addressing the negative consequence of substance use.
This study has the merit of being one the first studies to document differences in risky sexual behaviors between lowland adolescent Thai and adolescents from ethnic minority groups attending high school. More importantly, our study has policy implications—as it shows that adolescents in rural areas of Thailand are at large vulnerable to HIV infection and STIs. Ministries of Health and Education, NGOs, and other important stakeholders should energize their efforts to make sure that interventions and health campaigns reach out to the rural adolescents.
There are several limitations, however, to this research. Firstly, our study is limited for its use of a convenient sampling scheme which reduces the possibilities of generalizing our findings. Although it is clear that the results of this study do, to a large extent, represent the situation of adolescents in rural Chiang Mai, it is not clear to what extent these findings can be generalized to other adolescents in other areas of Thailand.
Also, our sample included only adolescents aged 16—19 years. Adolescents younger or older than those included in our age bracket may have different behavioral patterns. Secondly, we cannot draw any causal inferences, due to the cross-sectional design nature of our study. There is risk of social desirability bias—given the sensitivity inherent to sexual health topics. In summary, we have found that although important differences in risky patterns of sexual behavior do exist between lowland Thai adolescents and adolescents from ethnic minority groups, both groups remain largely vulnerable to HIV and STIs.
Sex education programs in schools are absolutely required. Furthermore, these programs need to be standardized in order to raise the awareness of young people about risky behavior patterns and how to avoid risky situations. Such interventions should, however, consider the broader contextual and structural landscape within which the adolescents in urban Chiang Mai live. We thank the young people in rural Chiang Mai Province who contributed to this research.
Arunrat Tangmunkongvorakul. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online Dec 1. Andrew R. Dalby, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Data curation: PM ST. Formal analysis: PM ST. Funding acquisition: AT. Project administration: AT KS. Supervision: AT.
Visualization: AT PM. Writing — original draft: LA. Received May 24; Accepted Oct This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Abstract Introduction The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Methods and findings This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. Conclusion A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities.
Introduction Risky sexual behaviors continue to raise the HIV epidemic among young people [ 1 , 2 ]. Results Socio-demographic information A total of 1, participants were contacted; all completed the study. Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of high-school students in rural Chiang Mai, Thailand. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Alcohol, smoking, and substance use among high-school students in rural Chiang Mai, Thailand. Less than 1—1 smoke occasionally 26 Sexual behavior As shown in Table 3 , Table 3 Sexual experience of high-school students in rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Table 4 Bivariate analysis of factors associated with having sexual intercourse among high-school students in rural Chiang Mai, Thailand. Table 5 Multivariate analysis of factors associated with having sexual intercourse among high-school students in rural Chiang Mai, Thailand. Discussion We found that adolescents attending high school in rural Chiang Mai engage in a number of risky patterns of sexual behavior, and that significant differences exist between lowland adolescent Thai youth and adolescent youth from ethnic minorities with respect to their risky patterns of sexual behaviors, including sexual intercourse experience; condom use; boyfriend or girlfriend relationship status; and number of lifetime sexual partners.
Lastly, In summary, we have found that although important differences in risky patterns of sexual behavior do exist between lowland Thai adolescents and adolescents from ethnic minority groups, both groups remain largely vulnerable to HIV and STIs. SAV Click here for additional data file. DOCX Click here for additional data file. Data Availability The dataset is available in Supporting Information files. References 1. Preventing HIV among young people: research priorities for the future.
Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes July; 63 Suppl 2 :S— Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes ; 1 Adolescents, young people and HIV. Fact Sheet Intimate relationships among adolescents in different social groups in northern Thailand. The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health November; 41 6 — Archives of sexual behavior November Explosive spread and effective control of human immunodeficiency virus in northernmost Thailand: the epidemic in Chiang Rai province, — December 1; 14 17 — Bureau of Epidemiology.
Sexually transmitted infections. Annual epidemiological surveillance report pp. Ministry of Social Development and Human Security. Pregnancy in Thai adolescents. WHO; PloS one ; 11 4 Use and perceptions of sexual and reproductive health services among northern Thai adolescents. March; 43 2 — Asian population studies March; 8 1 — Huguet, J. Aphichat Chamratrithirong and Kerry Richter. Thailand Migration Profile.
In Thailand Migration Report Accessed on 23 May Southeast Asian origins of five Hill Tribe populations and correlation of genetic to linguistic relationships inferred with genome-wide SNP data. Am J Phys Anthropol. Dahlfred K. Baba S. Liulan WC. Southeast Asian Studies ; 44 3 — The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health ; 45 6 — Kumpirat P.
Social and cultural factors leading to sexual risk behavior of adolescence in Phrae province Chiang Mai University.
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World Health Organization. Trade, foreign policy, diplomacy and health: Globalization. Bozon M, Kontula O. Sexual inititaion and gender in Europe: A cross-cultural analysis of trends in the twentieth century In Hubert M. London: UCL Press; ; 37— Friedman HL. Changing patterns of adolescent sexual behavior: consequences for health and development. The Journal of adolescent health: official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine ; 13 5 — Gender double standards in young people attending sexual health services in Northern Thailand.
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