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Management Theory Bibliography A-L

They include a lack of creativity, monotony, and lack of mobility. Creativity will naturally suffer due to the monotonous atmosphere that the division of labour creates. Doing the same routines may not suit everyone. Also, employees aren't familiar with other parts of the job.

Management Theories & Concepts at the Workplace | wovunefaco.ml

They cannot assist employers of different parts of the system. Modernization "began when a nation's rural population started moving from the countryside to cities" Shah 3. Urbanization is an inevitable characteristic of society because the formation of industries and factories induces profit maximization.

The coverage promoted "psychic mobility" among the social class and increased the aspirations of many hopefuls in developing economic countries Shah 4. Although this theory of modernization seemed to pride itself on only the benefits, countries in the Middle East saw this movement in a different light. Middle Eastern countries believed that the media coverage of modernization implied that the more "traditional" societies have not "risen to a higher level of technological development" Shah 6.

The growth of modernization took place beginning in the s. First, economic development was enhanced from the spread of new technological techniques. And second, modernization supported a more educated society as mentioned above , and thus a more qualified labor-force "Modernization Theory". This period was labeled [ by whom? Thus, organizational interactions become more distant "Modernization Theory".

According to Frank Dobbin, the modern worldview is the idea that "modern institutions are transparently purposive and that we are in the midst an evolutionary progression towards more efficient forms The key to achieving this goal is through scientific discoveries and innovations Dobbin Thus, the modernity of organizations is to generate maximum profit, through the use of mass media, technological innovations, and social innovations in order to effectively allocate resources for the betterment of the global economy.

The classical perspective emerges from the Industrial Revolution in the private sector and the need for improved Public Administration in the public sector. Both efforts center on theories of efficiency. Classical works have seasoned and have been elaborated upon in depth. Max Weber believed that an ideal bureaucracy consists of six specific characteristics: hierarchy of command, impersonality, written rules of conduct, advancement based on achievement, specialized division of labor, and efficiency.

Taylor’s Scientific Management

There are certainly both positive and negative consequences to bureaucracy, and strong arguments for both the efficiency and inefficiency of bureaucracies. While Max Weber's work was published in the late s and early s, before his death in , his work is still referenced today in the field of sociology. Weber's theory of bureaucracy claims that it is extremely efficient, and even goes as far as to claim that bureaucracy is the most efficient form of organization.

In addition, within an organization that operates under bureaucratic standards, the members will be better off due to the heavy regulation and detailed structure. Not only does bureaucracy make it much more difficult for arbitrary and unfair personal favors to be carried out, it also means that promotions and hiring will generally be done completely by merit. Weber most definitely saw bureaucracies as goal-driven, efficient organizations, but one must not come to the quick and incorrect conclusion that he saw no downfalls to bureaucracy.

He recognized that there are constraints within the bureaucratic system. First of all, he realized that bureaucracies were ruled by very few people with very large amounts of unregulated power. Regardless of whether or not bureaucracies should be considered positively efficient or too efficient to the extent that they become negative, Weberian bureaucracy tends to offer a teleological argument. A theory, in this case bureaucracy, is considered to be teleological if it involves aiming at specific goals.

Weber claimed that bureaucracies are goal-oriented organizations, which use their efficiency and rational principles to reach their goals. The scientific management theory was introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor to encourage production efficiency and productivity. Taylor defines scientific management as "concerned with knowing exactly what you want men to do and then see in that they do it in the best and cheapest way. The scholar most closely associated with Bureaucratic theory is Max Weber.

In Economy and Society , his seminal book published in , Weber articulates the necessary conditions and descriptive features of bureaucracy. An organization governed under Weber's conception of bureaucracy is characterized by the presence of impersonal positions that are earned and not inherited, rule-governed decision-making, professionalism, chain of command, defined responsibility, and bounded authority.

Weber begins his discussion of bureaucracy by introducing the concept of 'jurisdictional areas': institutions governed by a specific set of rules or laws. These elements make up a bureaucratic agency in the case of the state and a bureaucratic enterprise in the private economy. There are several additional features that comprise a Weberian bureaucracy: [26]. Weber argued that in bureaucracy, taking on a position or office signifies an assumption of a specific duty necessary for the organization.

This conception is distinct from historical working relationships in which a worker served a specific ruler, not an institution. The hierarchical nature of bureaucracies allows employees to demonstrate achieved social status. He derives his power 'from below' instead of 'from above'. When a high-ranking officer selects officials, they are more likely to be chosen for reasons related to the benefit of the superior than the competency of the new hire.

When high-skilled employees are necessary for the bureaucracy and public opinion shapes decision-making, competent officers are more likely to be selected. According to Weber, if 'tenure for life' is legally guaranteed, an office becomes perceived as less prestigious than a position that can be replaced at any time. If 'tenure for life' or a 'right to the office' develops, there is a decrease in career opportunities for ambitious new hires and overall technical efficiency becomes less guaranteed [26].

In a bureaucracy, salaries are provided to officials. The amount is determined on the basis of rank and helps to signify the desirability of a position. Bureaucratic positions also exist as part of stable career tracks that reward office-holders for seniority. Weber argues that the development of a 'money economy' is the "normal precondition for the unchanged survival, if not the establishment, of pure bureaucratic administrations". Weber posits that officials in a bureaucracy have a property right to their office and attempts at exploitation by a superior means the abandonment of bureaucratic principles.

He articulates that providing a status incentive to inferior officers helps them to maintain self-respect and fully participate in hierarchical frameworks. Weber's theories were purposed to set a stage for other organizations to follow, and the characteristics are so ideal that they may be impossible for any actual organization to succeed.

He wanted to come up with a set of guidelines that would favor both efficiency and, most importantly, conditions that would make the workers top priority. It was common for earlier theorists to distort Weber's views, and today, people still make the same mistakes as they did when Weber's views first came into play.

He has always been critiqued for the branches of his ideas that don't work in reality, but the point of his theory was not to actually create an organization, but to create an ideal model for other organizations to follow. One big misconception that people have had in the past is a question of Weber's morality due to their oversimplification of his characteristics of a pure bureaucracy. In reality, Weber believed that by using human logic in his system, organizations could achieve improvement of human condition in various workplaces. Complexity in an organization yields the highest success, therefore simplifying it leads to the illusions of over-authority and intense hierarchical power that are inaccurate of Weber's beliefs.

Another critique of Weber's theory is the argument of efficiency. Highest efficiency, in theory, can be attained through pure work with no regard for the workers for example, long hours with little pay , which is why oversimplification can be dangerous. If we were to take one characteristic focusing on efficiency, it would seem like Weber is promoting unhealthy work conditions, when in fact, he wanted the complete opposite.


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Taking all of the characteristics together will produce the ideal organization, but since a pure bureaucracy is nearly impossible to obtain, efficiency takes the back seat in his beliefs. Though his theories include characteristics of a highly efficient organization, these characteristics are only meant to set a model for other organizations to follow, and if all the other conditions are not perfect, the organization is not pure. With this said, the characteristics of Weber's theory have to all be perfect for a bureaucracy to function at its highest potential.

If one object in the drawer does not fit properly, the entire drawer becomes untidy, which is exactly the case in Weber's theory; if one characteristic is not fulfilled the rest of them are unable to work in unison, leaving the organization performing below its full potential. One characteristic that was meant to better workplace conditions was his rule that "Organization follows hierarchical principle — subordinates follow orders or superiors, but have right of appeal in contrast to more diffuse structure in traditional authority " Bureaucracy Weber.

In other words, everyone in a company or any sort of work environment has the opportunity and right to disagree or to speak up if they are unhappy with something rather than not voice their opinion in fear of losing their job.


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Open communication is a very important part of Weber's ideal bureaucracy, and is practiced today. Because of the communication it may not be the most efficient, but Weber would argue that improved human conditions are more important than efficiency. It is hard to critique Weber's theories strictly because of the fact that they are theories; they are nearly impossible to perform in real life, and therefore difficult to verify. They are merely a set of guidelines that make up bureaucracy, which today many believe is the best way to run organizations in all aspects.

Management Theories & Concepts at the Workplace

The Neoclassical perspective began with the Hawthorne studies in the s. This approach gave emphasis to "affective and socio-psychological aspects of human behavior in organizations. A number of sociologists and psychologists made major contributions to the study of the neoclassical perspective, which is also known as the human relations school of thought. Elton Mayo and his colleagues were the most important contributors to this study because of their famous Hawthorne study from the "Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company between and The Hawthorne study suggested that employees have social and psychological needs along with economic needs in order to be motivated to complete their assigned tasks.

This theory of management was a product of the strong opposition against "the Scientific and universal management process theory of Taylor and Fayol. In November , a team of researcher — professors from the renowned Harvard Business school of USA began investigating into the human aspects of work and working conditions at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company, Chicago.

The company was producing bells and other electric equipments for the telephone industry. The team conducted four separate experimental and behavioural studies over a seven-year period. These were:. Hawthorne Effect was the improvement of productivity between the employees, it was characterized by:. Critics believed that Mayo gave a lot of importance to the social side of the study rather than addressing the needs of an organization.

14 Principles of Management (Fayol)

Also, they believed that the study takes advantage of employees because it influences their emotions by making it seem as if they are satisfied and content, however it is merely a tool that is being used to further advance the productivity of the organization. There was a wave of scholarly attention to organizational theory in the s, which from some viewpoints held the field to still be in its infancy. Among a group of eminent organizational theorists active in during this decade were E. Niels Andersen believes that modern organizations have exploded beyond their original organizational boundaries.

Today, concepts are linked together, according to Niels Andersen, is this called the polyphonic organizational-movement. This claim was first made back in by Richard M. Cyert and James G. March in the book " A behavioral theory of the firm ". They said that organizations rarely operate with only one value. According to Cyert and March, organizations actually often operate with more values in their everyday behavior.

Niels Andersen elaborates on this assertion in many of his publications. Niels Andersen's research about polyphonic organization arise out of his understanding of the society as functionally differentiated. The society is divided into a number of countless communication systems social systems with their own values and commutative code. Niels Andersen is inspired by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann and his theory about social systems.

The core element of Luhmann's theory, pivots around the problem of the contingency of the meaning. In other words, the system theory becomes a theory of communication and how meaning is created within different social systems. Niels Anders uses the elements of Luhmann's system theory to describe the differentiation of society and connect that to the evolution of the modern organization. According to Andersen society is functionally differentiated into a wide range of systems with their own binary code.

The binary codes set some distinctions between a positive and negative value and divide the world in two halves. Understandings of the world are made throughout one side of the binary code. Andersen says that an organizational system always communicates and creates meaning through a function system binary code. In other words, an organization can only communicate through one side of one binary code at once. Throughout history organizations have always used several codes in their communication, but they have always had a primary codification.

Andersen calls this type of organization a homophonic organization. According to Andersen, today we have polyphonic organizations. Polyphonic organizations have emerged as a result of the way that the function systems have exploded beyond their organizational forms.

A polyphonic organization is an organization that is connected to several function systems without a predefined primary function system multiple binary codifications. In other words, the polyphonic organization is an organization that describes itself through many codes. Andersen addresses how it can be difficult for companies to plan their communication and action because they have to mediate between many codes at the same time.


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There is no longer a predicted hierarchy of codes and therefore no connection between organizations and specific communication. This can also create management challenges for companies because they have to take more factors into account compared to earlier. Organizations that seek for continuous improvement train employees to have better communication skills. This ensures that all possible channels to effectively exchange information and views are always open. Urgency, importance and complexity of information to be communicated influence the selection of the most appropriate tool to be adopted.

However, wrong selection of communication tools might have a negative impact on the organization performance depending on the nature of each case. Coordination is a process which heavily employs communication skills to create and keep harmony among the efforts of individuals to achieve the set goals. Some scholars considered the coordination as the essence of management. This would make sense because all the managerial functions are considered exercises contributing to coordination. Organizations develop and maintain effective coordination within or beyond boundaries to maximize the potential profitability.

For example, coordination among independent organizations, such as raw-material suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and retailers, is the key to attaining the flexibility necessary to improve logistics processes in response to rapidly changing market conditions Simatupang, References: Cole, G. Donaldson, L. What do you understand by administrative management theory? How is it different from scientific management theory? Name required.

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